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History of the Museum

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History of the Museum

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Published On : saturday 28 April 1393

Artwork collection is in human nature. In the Neolithic period, man collected sets of shellfish, pebbles, and animal bones and used it for decoration. These collections have been found in the graveyards of ancient civilizations and the Iranian plateau, reflecting their belief in post-death life.
At the end of the fourth century and the beginning of the third century BC, Ptolemy I, Commander of Alexander the Great, established a Museum alongside his palace in Alexandria, which included a large university, library, laboratory, observatory and garden of plants and animals. But after Ptolemy, this idea was not followed, and only the references in the books remained of this museum.
The uses of works of art were different in ancient Rome. The Roman emperors displayed the enormous riches of wars in Rome in parks, baths, and other public places where people visited them.
In the religious places of the East and Christian churches in the west, various types of objects were kept, such as jewelry and ornaments, expensive fabrics,warlike weapons,decorated expensive gems. The wealth of the churches was unconscious in terms of pricing, and the churches were careful about their savings, as a result the collections were only displayed in exceptional situations.
During the Renaissance from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, due to the fundamental transformations and intellectual changes that emerged in European societies, the owners of collections did not consider their collections as financial capital, but also recognized their cultural and artistic value, and thus the collections came out of the hiding places and displayed in the forums.
The opening up of private collections to the people (17th and 18th centuries) and then the industrial revolution in England and Western Europe (1750-1850 AD) created new ideas and influences in the political, economic and social fields of the West. Following that, private collections with the name of museum were unmasked to the general public.
According to Noushin Dukht Nafisi, in the book of Museums, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries witnessed fundamental changes and popular acceptance of museums. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, museum and its constructive role have been recognized in various societies, and various museums began to operate in different parts of the world.
From then on, the museums found a scientific aspect and instruction as one of their functions was known. Thus special museums such as glass, textiles and rugs, musical instruments, the lives of writers and artists were established.
After the Second World War (1939-1945), the political, economic, social and cultural developments in Western Europe completely changed museums. With regard to the educational role of museums, more educational services were developed for expanding culture in a wider range. As a result of new programs in this field called "application of museums" the owners of museums used mass media to advertise it.
History of Museum in Iran
The establishment of museums began with the establishment of the palace Museum of Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar at Golestan Palace (1912-1914). Nasser-al-Din Shah, impressed by watching pictures and paintings of world museums, made the Salam hall of Golestan Palace as a place for collection of property and objects of the court, and in 1911 ordered that parts of the building in the north of the palace, including the location of the old Qajar kings museum in which they held external gifts, to be destructed and the museum's room, library, hall, pond house and other accessories were constructed.
In any case, the Golestan Palace Museum with its richness and variety of works as well as the library and documents of the palace are one of the most important museums in our country and one of the most acclaimed museums in the world.
The first official museum of Iran, named the National Museum of Iran ordered byMortezaGholi Khan Momtazalmolk, the Minister of Education,in 1916 andwas established at Dar Al-FonounSchool with 72 objects, which were mostly carpet, but because it was a small museum, the Massoudi mansion, belonged to Prince MassoudMirza, a beautiful monument of the Qajar era, was ordered byReza Khan for the museum place and in 1925 the objects were transferred from the school to the Massoudi mansion.
Massoudimansion did not have the capacity ofthe discovered objects of the country, and after the National Reserve Act was approved on November 4, 1930, the government was obliged to preserve national monuments and monitor them.Reza Khan Pahlavi orderedto construct a museum called the Museum of Ancient Iran. The museum building finished in1937 and has a lush Persian style.Its architect and designer is André Godard of France, who was the head of the Department of the Antiquities at that time and had studied the works of Iran for many years. This museum has many works of Iranian civilization from 4000 BC to the present.

With the gradual increase of museum objects, their plurality, and international relations, public and specialized museums were created in Tehran and other cities, including:
1- Museum of the Military Academy, which was set up in 1923 to teachGunnery and History of Weapons to the officers of the Tehran Military Academy.
2. The Museum of Arts and Crafts was founded in 1930by the late Hussein TaherzadehBehzad, who founded it in the oldvocational school and the works of the artists of that time, the professors and students of the vocational school were addedto the museum.
3. Among other early Iranian museums is Tehran's Museum of Anthropology (1933), which was initially called anthropology circle.
4. Museums of religious places started in 1935 with the opening of the Astan Quds Razavi Museum in Mashhad. Shortly after that, theAstanHazratMasoumeh Museum inaugurated in Qom.
5- Other museums of the country which were gradually established before the Islamic Revolution are the Chehelsotun Museum of Isfahan, the Pars Museum ofShiraz, Reza Abbasi Museum, the Carpet Museum, and the Museum of Glass.
6. After the revolution, museums have been set up in cities that have holy places including the Donation Museum of Birjand.
7. Other examples of museums established after the revolution are: Martyrs Museum, Dafina Museum, Sadabad Palace,Niavaran Palace, and Museum of Decorative Arts.

By : All Rights Reserved By Kashan

Source : All Rights Reserved By Kashan CHT