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Published On : friday 27 April 1393
The etymology of the word museum is derived from the Greek word Mousein, meaning the residence of Mouse, the goddess of art and industry in the Greek mythology.
This term is Museein in French language.
About the 1870s the French pronunciation of this word was common in Persian. Its history dates back to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar's journeys to Europe and his visits to the museums which made him convinced to create the same places in the royal citadel of Tehran.
Definition of museum :
According to the International Council of Museums (ICOM) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), in articles 3 and 4 of its statute the most comprehensive definition of the museum is as follows:
The museum is a permanent institution with no financial purpose, the doors of which are open to the public, serving the community and endeavoring to improve it.
- Researching the traces and objects remained from bygone generations and their surrounding environment
- Collecting and preserving works
- Spiritual exploitation of works
- Establishing a link between these works, in particular, to display them for the purpose of exploration and spiritual efficiency
In addition, ICOM also recognizes the following items as defined above:
- Preservation organizations and forums that are continually maintained by libraries and archives.
- Places and historical, natural and anthropological monuments which are important in the field of collecting, preserving and displaying ancient artifacts.
- Establishments such as gardens of animal studies, botanical gardens, landscaping and aquatic organisms that display the history of living creatures.
- Natural resources
- Science Centers and Space Exhibitions
The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is a non-governmental organization affiliated with the United Nations (UNESCO), established in 1964 for the purpose of studying museums and other systems related to the management and operation of them.
ICOM has about 21,000 members from 140 countries. Its members are active in national, international and regional committees and are supported by its secretariat. The Secretariat is in the General Assembly, which makes decisions with the approval of UNESCO.
ICOM Goals and Responsibilities:
- Encouraging and supporting the establishment, development and professional management of various museums.
- Improving the knowledge and understanding of the nature, duties and role of the museums in the development of a society
- Establishing mutual relations between museums and their professional staff in different countries
- Expressing, supporting and advancing various interests of professional staff of museums
- Improving the science of museology and creating new methods of organizing, arranging, and managing museums
- Knowing handicrafts of a nation or a civilization
- Studying the objects to determine their age, characteristics and historical background
- Understanding the artistic practices of any nation and comparing them with other countries and civilizations and making conclusions accordingly.
- Studying the lifestyle of different nations from the distant past to one hundred years ago
- Transferring knowledge and identity of arts and civilization of a community to students and scholars
- Protecting and preserving the value of the cultural heritage remained from the past
- Displaying objects to learn from the bygone history.
Author: Kashan Cultural Heritage
By : All Rights Reserved By Kashan
Source : All Rights Reserved By Kashan CHT
All Rights Reserved By Kashan CHT